Gummy Formulation - Recipes and References

I just joined this community (first post!) and just finished reading through the pinned gummy post. Lots of great info and a few recipes, but I thought I could add to the community with some “professional” resources I’ve found. This is going to be a long post. I hope posting excerpts from books is okay, because that’s going to save me hours of typing to just show you the info directly from the horse’s mouth.

Personally I find it infuriating how few professional resources exist for the candy market. Almost everyone I’ve reached out to during my research is either trying to sell a recipe, sell their consultation or simply refuse to share because they fear competition. I’ve even talked to pastry students who were tight-lipped because their professors told them not to share a word of their teaching publicly. What the hell?

Personally I’m an “all boats rise” kind of fellow. I’m also not doing this commercially - I live in Ontario which limits the entire PACKAGE to 10mg of THC. If you want 100mg of THC, you’re buying 10 packs. It’s sad and not an environment I’d want to compete in.

It took a while to dig up these resources so I wanted to share and hopefully spur discussion about the more technical aspects of gummy making.

For starters, I found an EXCELLENT book on confectionary that I think is a ‘must have’ - “Confectionery Science and Technology”. This is a candy textbook and reads like one. I suggest you grab the book (it’s on libgen if you’re curious). Here are some ultra helpful charts from the gummy section:

Pretty nice chart on the differences between different gelling agents:


Formulation %'s for gelatin and pectin based recipes:


A nice writeup on gelatin and pectin recipes:


I feel there’s too much bloat to post the exact write-up but the book mentions that gummies should be dried in less then 50% humidity for 8-24 hours, and that to sugar-coat the dried and non-tacky surface, they are often quickly “steamed” to allow the sugar to adhere. I did this recently (literally just passed a few gummies over a pot of boiling water for a second) and it worked wonders.

Bloom strength conversion chart:

The next book which is also HUGELY helpful, is called “Chocolates and Confections” from the Culinary Institute of America. This is far less textbook-style and more of an advanced recipe and reference book for culinary students.

Relevant Gelatin parts:




Some general info:


Onto the next book that was hugely helpful - Candy is Magic. This book was written by a successful candy store owner. Sadly they are out of business but the book can still be found floating around.

Here’s the gummy recipe they use:

They use silver leaf gelatin, which I can’t find here to test out “as is”, but if you substitute roughly 1 tablespoon of powdered per 3 sheets, it gets you in the ballpark. So roughly 5 tablespoons. I tried with 6 one time and it was like chewing rubber. So 5 is probably where your happy place will be.

I found yet another professional recipe that I believe was linked to by a Boiron Purees page (famous puree company):

Based on what I’ve learned so far, I would likely argue that this Boiron recipe would not be very shelf stable. All the water is tied up with the gelatin and not boiled or cooked, so it’s effectively all going into the final candy which means lots of available water, which means spoilage. However, it would likely still be a tasty version.

Personally, I’ve had the best luck to date using the recipe from “Chocolates and Confections”. The texture is just right - nice bounce without being hard or too soft.

Something of interest is that the two books with actual recipes share a very similar recipe formulation by % of ingredients to total weight. Not quite perfectly in line with the science textbook %'s (although pretty close in most respects). Side by side they look roughly like this:

A few considerations:

  • I converted the silver leaf gelatin into 53 grams, which is basically 5.3 tablespoons. This is what I got when I weighed by own powdered gelatin so I’m running with it

  • Citric acid, flavor, and color do not seem to be normally included in recipe formulation %s, so I didn’t include them in the spreadsheet screenshot. Usually citric acid, flavor, and color are very minor additions and shouldn’t throw any % off by much.

  • I included puree as an ingredient in the ‘candy is magic’ recipe though as I consider it, essentially, a liquid/water addition that gets cooked.

  • If you look at the Boiron recipe, the water is only added in the bloom (other than the puree, which might as well also be considered a water addition), and never cooked, so it will have a much higher available water content.

Some questions I still have that I could not find adequate answers to that will simply require more experimentation:

  • I understand that cooking the sugar will affect texture (and available water, and thus a spoilage consideration), but these recipes tend to bring it all the way up to 270F, which is quite a bit higher than most recipes you find online. They do say to cool it down to about 240, which is where most casual online recipes tell you to stop at when cooking (likely because gelatin denatures above this temp). While there are lots of charts around sugar texture at various temps (soft ball, hard crack, etc), none involve the incorporation of gelatin - it would be nice to know how sugar temp and gelatin relate to texture at different stages. Personally, I find the gummy mix rather difficult to work with once it gets up to 270F - it basically seems to want to set and harden as you work with it, so timing and process are super critical (or keep a heated bath to ensure it never gets the chance)

  • I have yet to dive into pectin but included some details as that’s where I want to go next. As much as I like an elastic, chewy gummy texture, I think I actually prefer the softer, creamier, almost melt in your mouth texture that pectin gummies seem to have. Most of the commercial companies I purchase seem to have gone that direction as well.

Hopefully you enjoyed this post and find it useful for refining future recipes :slight_smile:


holy shit, coming out strong.

gonna try these


Great first post, thanks for sharing all this!


Damn. Where was this when we were R+D ours lol

Great post man!


Excellent compilation of valuable books. Chocolate and Confections is the one I’ve worked off of, but I’m curious to try out the others for myself. Thanks very much for bringing them to my (our) attention!

I’ve got the same questions as you regarding heating the sugars up to 270F. I suppose it’s to ensure minimal available water, but I can’t be sure.

When you say you followed the C&C recipe, does that include the starch molds, though (or dusting a silicone mold)? I’m just using silicone molds as usual, and sometimes coat with sugar. Also, glucose syrup? I made a DIY recipe for it when I didn’t have it, but I’ve been tempted to do a comparison using various sugars (fructose, sucrose, glucose) and sorbitol, etc.

I was talking to a professional gummy maker a while ago and they basically advised me to stay clear of starch molding because of what a pain in the ass it is. They said they used it for a while in their shop and the mess and frustration wasn’t worth it. I can see why it’s huge in industrial settings but I don’t think it makes sense at the home level at all.

Right now I’m using silicone molds that I spray with as little cooking spray as I can. The resulting gummies don’t look or feel oily at all, but if you handle a lot of them it’s pretty clear that there’s an oil slick. Completely impossible to tell once you sugar coat though. I’ve considered starching the molds instead though - I might do that next batch for at least a few of the molds to see what happens. I’ve also tried not using anything and while they gummies DID come out, it easily took 4x longer to do so.

A homebrew store near me sells glucose syrup, so I’ve been using that. I’ve seen recipes that use corn syrup or golden syrup or similar sugar syrups but I haven’t tried any. I’m fairly certain that you can use a number of different products here - basically their purpose is to prevent the sugar from re-crystalizing. Here’s the relevant text from “Candy is Magic”:


I’ve been told that water content and sugar temp is one of those “known” things in candy making (although none of the books I reference really get into this aspect, or I missed it). Basically, if you heat your sugar up to X temp, you know for certain that there is less than Y available water in it. Texture is usually the talking point when it comes to sugar and temp though, and my big question is how texture is influenced by temp in the presence of a gelling agent (gelatin, for example).

Sugar alcohols is another place to explore that I need to look into further. Sorbitol and other sugar alcohols apparently strengthen the gelatin bonds (or something like that?) so it’s another texture variable.

So, so, so much knowledge and none of it in one place. I almost feel like I need to be a food scientist to fully get all this stuff.


ive never had issues with my gummies releasing. just refigerate a bit and they pop out. Im making them today and changed my sop a bit and well see how it works. Im off to get a silicone spatula because when i homogenized i think alot of oil stuck to the sides.

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On this rare occasion, I agree with Thumper. Iv never had any issues with de-molding and I have never coated my molds… ever.

I can see where some oddly shaped mold designs being difficult


Seems like I read somewhere that glucose syrup also has less water content than corn syrup, which is a plus.

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Great first post @TriesToMakeThings! Everyone should be required to post something like this first.

We never have issues with de-molding our pectin gummies. No spray.

We use @darkcitymolds Rose Pro. We have about ~130 at the facility. You really have no choice but DCM if you are serious about gummies. Budget molds mean defects, less consistency, lower potential retail price point of your gummies, and higher labor costs.

ROI on Rose Pro’s is nearly immediate if you are actually running a business. Also, the owner of DCM knows gummies like the back of his hand and will guide you to success (so you buy more molds).


@TriesToMakeThings Temps and soluble solids levels can be correlative to a degree, but not necessarily directly so. This is the reason one of the above recipes mentions brix being more exact. Comes down to the fact that water inputs can vary. You may see consistent rates of evaporation, all other inputs being equal, at certain temps, but if there’s more or less water in the slurry to begin with then you won’t necessarily achieve equivalency in soluble solids. A simpler way of thinking about this is that a pot of water and a pot of oatmeal can both be brought to comparable temps, but that doesn’t mean their solids % is equivalent.

Your friend is correct about starch molds. At very large scale, they can make sense as an “evergreen” solution. Generally speaking, for anything in the infused market, even the big ops, they’re overkill and more trouble to manage than they’re worth. I’m obviously biased but its also the truth.


I have both of these books, and would definitely recommend them both.


Huge question! So most of these really good gummy formulations use about 20 percent water in the recipe …I use about 8 percent gelatin and the amount of gelatin I need to use for the recipe(50 grams in this case) would require me to go over my water content percentage by a good deal. And all that ends up doing is leading to longer cooking time for me to reach my desired brix. Im wondering if anyone has a solution for blooming gelatin without having to use 3 to 4 times it’s own weight in water to bloom properly. Not sure if anyone else understands my dilemma? For example with the last batch I just did (638gram batch ) it called for 50 grams gelatin (at 8 percent rate) and even the recipe only tells me to bloom the gelatin in less than twice it’s weight in water.the first time I did this the gelatin didn’t bloom properly at all and there was undissolved gelatin everywhere.

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Hit me up


I inboxed ya :blush:

I have never had an issue using 2-3x water-to-gelatin ratio. My current formula blooms about 7 % gelatin (55g) in 17% water (142g) which works out to 2.5x.

Place cold water in a dish, grab a whisk, and sprinkle the gelatin into the bowl while whisking constantly. Takes maybe 10 seconds total and 100% of the water will be absorbed by the gelatin. Set it aside and melt it in a hot water bath just before you’re ready to use it (I do this while waiting for the mixture to cool a bit).

I couldn’t imagine using less water than 2-3x gelatin weight without having issues. Assuming we’re talking powdered knox-style gelatin. I’ve never used sheets and at this point I forget what they require.


Good info and thanks for coming out of the woodworks to answer this! I think this is very well what I may of needed to help dial me in a little better with my water content relation to my brix. It’s frustrating having to stand over a pot for almost an hour trying to get the brix level to raise because of added water content. Another thing I’ve noticed…for example when I go to make a 648 gram batch (my mold is 432 cavity’s x 1.5ml) I calculate the water percentage as part of the overall weight (which I now know isnt a good way to do it) I’ve been tryna make 25 mg gummies but being short at the end I always gotta do the math and round up and high ends up around 35 mg a piece instead and I’ve literally been short about 100 gummies (150 grams ) which is very close to the weight in water I add for the batch. I’m starting to think I need to not factor in the weight of the water I add if I want the correct amount of gummies each batch

If you’re then going to spend an hr over the pot boiling said water out of your mixture, chances are you are correct…it’s not actually in there at pour…

One doses based on piece count or total finished batch weight.

The water (or ~150g of it) is not IN your finished batch…you went to a great deal of trouble to make sure of that.

Your intuition that the math needs to reflect this is correct



I pretty much answered my own question I guess haha. Not tryna use this as a platform just to write my own notes in I promise :rofl: but yeah I see this now and it’s obvious it seems like I just need to tweak my gelatin amount and water content just very slightly and that should bring me within acceptable range by theory


I bloom my gelatin in a sous vide bath. My water % is 14% and 7% gelatin. i dont add any additional water to my batch recipe at all, so i dont have to cook any of it out.