Beads loaded beads molsieves or polystyrene

Ok so to scale the HHC production i need to find the best shortcut to THC
Althou several beads can get the job done
Wich one has the highest yield
At the best $
Amberlyst 15 yield 82%
Amberlyst 17 yield 73%
Sapo 35 78%
P tolueen sulfonic polystyrene 92% ($$$$)
So the theory is

Make thc in high yield 95+%
With a bead Wich will not release any reagent
In the alcohol solvent and once the beads are filtered out proceed with the hydrogenation

Another option I am contemplating is
Produce HCL gas on location and sparge treu a solvent that does not dissolve HCL gas
Doubt it will work thou and proceed to HHC
Question is how does hydrogenation function on alkane solvents ?

Either way a route needs to be found !

So who uses beads ?


Are you looking for a high yield of D9 or just maximum conversion of CBD, therefore a mix of D8 and D9?

I tried a lot of different beads from Purolite.
Most of them are sulfonic acid activated. They give a good conversion in general, but the yield is “comparable” to a classic pTSA conversion. High affinity for d8. @Dr_Jebril may go more in depth here, since he found it to produce iso THC if I remember correct.

I think the best route for high D9 would be support bonded phosphoric acid. So far I did not found any. PuroLite has some beads with phosphonic acid, but I doubt they do the trick.


Since the thc is meant as precursor for HHC
The 9/8 does not matter
Having a high Thc yield is what counts since it should all be Hhc in the end and so far I have not found much difrance in starting with high thcD9 or high thcD8 as long as it is thc
So to avoid the washing the acid out process
From the cbd isomerization to thc
I like to find the right parameters and bead for the job


I am not familiar with the HHC reaction. As long as this is no issue here, try to get one of those:

They are just a little different in detail (inner pore size, etc.) but all did the Job.
Parameters are comparable to a regular pTSA reaction.


Thx and will do
Looking for the bead that makes D8 in highest yield
@mitokid what would a hydrogenated iso-thc look like ?
Would the positions align to all Hhc ?
Or would a iso-thc or trans-thc for that matter all end up as a Hhc ?
Rabot hole here I come :joy:

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You can definitely make HCl gas on site and then pass it through a bunch of drierite to clean it up. thing is you can’t use any metal connections or they’ll corrode like crazy

I’ve done a bunch of hydrogenations but never in an alkane solvent. Methanol/Ethanol with Pd/C were the go tos. Why do you ask if it can be done in alkanes? I thought the initial conversions were done in ethanol.

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d9 is the better isomer as hydrogenation under normal conditions lead to more of the active diastereomer of HHC.


Hmm ok how about the iso, and trans thc
How do they behave beeing hydrogenated ?
Do they align to become an HHC or do they side react to there new hydrogenated iso or trans hhc ?

Thx for the info of HCL I am well aware of it s drawbacks :joy: great reagent all together
If I where to sparge hcl in an alcohol washing the acid out is a must since it dissolves well in alcohols back to square 1
Reason I am contemplating a difrent solvent
Alkane or tolueen

If D9 is favorite alcohols are a bummer
Main D9 solvents I use are hexane pentane or DCM with the pyrophoric reagents

I am sure you are a lot but I mean a lot beter versed than me in the chemistry but I hardly see much better yields using D8 or D9
Maybe other members can tell there findings
@RockSteady @eyeworm @Psilisophical

Pfff seems pentane has lowest affinity for HCL gas

From an older Mechoulam paper:

d8 gives R/S 1:2
d9 gives R/S 3:1

I’m not surprised combined yields are similar.


Kca has said most the stuff they’ve test is around 50/50 9r/9s regardless of starting material


So ptsa at 40C 15 min
Quench with potasiumhydroxide in methanol
Cooled by dry ice 50/50 8/9 at least :sunglasses:


It wouldn’t surprise if that is due to unnecessarily harsh conditions, not allowing the facial selectivity of the alkenes to manifest.

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Hydrogenation products from the iso-THCs would still have the same carbon skeleton but the double bond that didn’t take part in the cyclization would now be reduced.

All these product yield above 90% THCs (d8+iso-d8+small d9).
The d8 yields listed by @Roguelab are acurate.
The difference to 90% is roughly the iso-d8.

The same can be said regarding the classical route to d9 with the organometalic catalysis (70%d9+20%iso-d9)…

It is likely the case that most HHC is produce from delta 8 THC…
Or it would mean that classic employed hydrogenation route is in fact non steroselective, regardless of substrate. :thinking:

It is also interesting to see that there seems to be no iso-HHC.
As if the iso-THCs would eventually turne into the same HHCs as THCs. :thinking:

I did not though about combined yields when writing this. :sweat_smile:

In fact, following this, a mixture with 40% d9 and 67% d8 would yield 1:1 R/S.
Then anything leaning more and more toward d8 would slowly rise toward 1:2 R/S.
(e.g. 10% d9 + 90% d8 would yield 1:1.6 R/S).

re-edited: I made basic error in my calculation, which @mitokid corrected hereafter… :sweat_smile: :sweat_smile:

If you by classic mean atmospheric pressure H2, ambient temperature, ethanol as solvent, then I tend to think that what Mechoulam’s group reported is correct.

I think the lack of facial selectivity observed could potentially have something to do with inappropriate reaction conditions, eg., elevated temperature and not enough solvent.

I get 40% d9 using the Mechoulam estimated ratios (as found in the Hashish VII paper).

40(3/4) + 60(1/3) = 50
40(1/4) + 60(2/3) = 50

I erroneously thought that they used NMR for quantitation, but it appears to be a guesstimate based on IR.

This is where I found the info:

isomerization(1).pdf (559.3 KB)


Adds to 110.


Yes. :sweat_smile:
In the calculation in fact I used 66%d8 (=1-%d9)…
But anyway, i did not used fractional factor like you did, but stoechiometric numbers non normalized to one. :man_facepalming:

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